T cell lines were established from both valvular specimens and peripheral blood lymphocytes from seven patients with well documented rheumatic heart disease. These cell lines were stimulated with either PHA or streptococcal antigens. Proliferation assays revealed that both valvular and peripheral blood T cell lines reacted to cell wall (CW) and cell membrane (CM) antigens obtained from rheumatic fever associated group A streptococci and not to nephritogenic strains. None of the cell lines reacted to M protein, myosin or other mammalian cytoskeletal proteins. The unique reactivity of rheumatic fever T cell lines only to cellular structures obtained from rheumatogenic strains suggests that these lines react to epitopes specific for antigens obtained from these strains.