A Psychrophilic GelMA: Breaking Technical and Immunological Barriers for Multimaterial High-Resolution 3D Bioprinting

Alessandro Zaupa, Claudia Terraza, Phammela N. Abarzúa-Illanes, Nicholas Byres, Gabriela Zavala, Jimena Cuenca, Carmen Hidalgo, Sergio M. Viafara-Garcia, Bettina Wolf, Karina Pino-Lagos, Jonny J. Blaker, Mayan Rumbak, Maroun Khoury, Javier Enrione, Juan Pablo Acevedo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The increasing demand for tissue replacement has encouraged scientists worldwide to focus on developing new biofabrication technologies. Multimaterials/cells printed with stringent resolutions are necessary to address the high complexity of tissues. Advanced inkjet 3D printing can use multimaterials and attain high resolution and complexity of printed structures. However, a decisive yet limiting aspect of translational 3D bioprinting is selecting the befitting material to be used as bioink; there is a complete lack of cytoactive bioinks with adequate rheological, mechanical, and reactive properties. This work strives to achieve the right balance between resolution and cell support through methacrylamide functionalization of a psychrophilic gelatin and new fluorosurfactants used to engineer a photo-cross-linkable and immunoevasive bioink. The syntonized parameters following optimal formulation conditions allow proficient printability in a PolyJet 3D printer comparable in resolution to a commercial synthetic ink (∼150 μm). The bioink formulation achieved the desired viability (∼80%) and proliferation of co-printed cells while demonstrating in vivo immune tolerance of printed structures. The practical usage of existing high-resolution 3D printing systems using a novel bioink is shown here, allowing 3D bioprinted structures with potentially unprecedented complexity.

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the financial support from CORFO to develop this work through their grants, 15CONTEC-47942 and 20CVID-128078; the Ministry of Education of Chile through its grant UAN1301; and the National Agency for Investigation and Development, ANID (Agencia Nacional de Inverstigación y Desarrollo), for its Basal funding for Scientific and Technological Center of Excellence, IMPACT, #FB210024. We also acknowledge Fondecyt for the financial support in mobility and research expenses between collaborative research groups from UK and Chile through its grant Newton-Picarte REDES No. 140144.

Funding Information:
The authors thank Prof. Rommy Zúñiga Pardo for facilitating and assisting with the drop shape analysis system (Ramé-Hart Model 250 Standard Goniometer/Tensiometer, Succasunna, US) at the Department of Biotechnology in the Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana. This work was also made possible by the support provided by Prof. Fernando Osorio from USACH, who facilitated training in rheology.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.


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